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In recent years, Computational Thinking (CT) has emerged as a fundamental skill for everyone, not just for computer scientists. Despite increasing uptake, a range of issues and challenges are emerging for the effective integration of CT skills in compulsory education. This report updates and extends findings from the 2016 CompuThink study, providing an updated overview in 22 EU Member States and eight non-EU countries.  It also provides a comprehensive summary of evidence, including eleven recommendations for policy and practice.

The study concentrated on some key questions concerning the integration of CT skills in compulsory education:

• What is the state of play on integrating CT in EU compulsory education settings?

• What are the core characteristics of CT and its relationship with computer science, informatics and computing?

• How are CT skills being developed and assessed in EU compulsory education?

• How can computing education in the EU be improved?

The study has gathered a wide range of evidence from a systematic literature review, a survey with representatives of Ministries of Education, two online consultation events, and through in-depth case studies in nine European countries involving semi-structured interviews (with experts, policy makers, school leaders, teachers) and focus groups (with students). 

This publication is a report by the Joint Research Centre (JRC), the European Commission’s science and knowledge service.

Skills intelligence publication details

Target audience
Digital skills in education.
Digital technology / specialisation
Digital skill level
Geographic scope - Country
Industry - field of education and training
Computer use
Geographical sphere
EU institutional initiative
Publication type