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The Handbook on Identifying and Countering Disinformation was developed within the context of the DOMINOES (Digital cOMpetences INformatiOn EcoSystem) project. DOMINOES is an Erasmus+ funded project whose main goal is to help citizens recognise, evaluate, and react appropriately to disinformation online. 

A resource for developing digital competencies

The topics covered within the handbook are linked to a series of competences found in the 2022 Digital Competence Framework for Citizens. Split into 6 chapters, it explores different aspects of Competence Framework: 

  • Emerging trends in disinformation
  • Aggravating factors for the dissemination of fake news
  • Mitigating factors for the dissemination of fake news
  • Legal framework for countering disinformation
  • Tech-driven solutions
  • Public policy analysis 

Using case studies and best practice examples, the handbook outlines what disinformation is, how it operates, its impact, what can be done to counter it. It also highlights the main challenges in the fight against disinformation and provides a foundation for developing the competencies listed in the Framework. Developed by a consortium of partners from Spain, Malta and Romania, the handbook focuses on national policy analysis for these three countries in addition to European public policy analysis. This is therefore a vital resource in developing resilience against misinformation and digital competencies on a national and European scale. 

Digital skills resource details

Target audience
Digital skills for all
Digital technology / specialisation
Digital skill level
Geographic scope - Country
Industry - field of education and training
Generic programmes and qualifications not further defined
Target language
Geographical sphere
EU institutional initiative


Skills resource type
Other training material